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During the past quarter of a century, middle-class churches in general, and Christian youth groups in particular, have discovered the poor. Teenagers have planned famines in which they fast for one meal or a day to feel what hungry people experience as commonplace. Short-term mission trips to third-world countries often replace church camp on the summer agenda. Doing something for the homeless is just about a must for any suburban youth group.
The motivations behind all of this so-called social action are varied. One woman told a youth worker that she wanted to have her children see how poor people live, so that they would be more grateful for what they had. An intensely evangelistic youth pastor wanted to help the poor because that would make them more willing to listen to the salvation story. Then there was the high school cheerleader who testified that the best thing about helping the poor was how it made her feel.
Often we give little attention to what we do to the poor in the midst of all this. Ivan Illich, the famous Swiss missionary to Brazil, criticized church youth groups that traveled to poor countries to help "unfortunate people." He claimed that whatever good might be done through these excursions into the world of the poor was more than negated by the assault on their dignity and the dehumanization experienced by the poor who are visited.1
A biblically based theology to govern encounters with the poor can help prevent such ugly exploitation of people by altruistically motivated young people who really want to help. When it comes to a theology of the poor, there are few who can match that developed by Francis of Assisi.2 This 10th-century saint let us know in no uncertain terms that the poor were, as he called them, sacramental, and not just objects of pity. What Francis meant by the term sacramental is that the eternal Christ somehow infuses the poor so that, as we meet them face to face, we are meeting not only the poor, but encountering something of the presence of Christ. To Francis, the poor were not Christ, but he believed that Christ came through the poor to those who would look into their eyes with spiritual discernment. Even as Lutherans believe that there is a real presence of Christ in the bread and the wine in Holy Communion (though the elements still remain bread and wine), so Francis believed that, though the poor remain what they are, Christ flows through them to those who have eyes to see him and ears to hear him. Mother Teresa caught what Francis meant by this when she said, "Every time I look in to the eyes of a poor man dying of AIDS, I have this eerie awareness that Jesus is staring back at me."
Learning what Francis tried to tell us can radically transform our encounters with the poor. Young people can be delivered from condescending pity with its dehumanizing effects. Instead of pity, they can learn to encounter the poor with reverence, to ask only if they are worthy of the privilege of ministering to such a sacred people. Francis wanted us to take literally the words of Jesus who said, "whatever you did for one of the least of these you did for me" (Matthew 25:40). It would benefit any church youth group to spend time discussing Matthew 25:31-46, because this is the passage that molded Francis thinking about the poor. As young people study this passage, it will alter the way they perceive the poor and help them become a servant people.
Having a Franciscan disposition when encountering the poor can motivate young people into action. Sensing Christs suffering in the poor, they will want to act. And what they want to do will change them. We are mistaken if we think that change in a person comes about only through intellectual arguments. We often fail to recognize that, while what young people think and believe can determine what they do, it is equally true that what young people do can determine what they think and believe. Conversion can and does occur in the context of praxis.3 Time and again, young people give witness to having experienced Christ in a "real" way while working among the poor. For many of them, this was the first time they had a mystical encounter with Christ, and often they testify that it was through such encounters that they really became Christians.
Getting teenagers to help the poor will earn the support of almost everyone in a typical church congregation. Organizing them to build houses for Habitat for Humanity will mark up credit for the youth worker with the churchs Christian education committee. Getting teenagers to participate in a march for the homeless may result in a flattering article in the town paper. But should a church youth group begin to deal with the causes of poverty, and start to advocate political change to ameliorate the sufferings of the oppressed, the responses from the larger community might not be so positive.
Bishop Oscar Romero, the martyred leader of the Nicaraguan church, once observed: "When I feed the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor are poor, they call me a communist." Nevertheless, more and more Christian youth are doing just that. They are asking, "What makes the poor poor?" And what they find sometimes radicalizes their politics, which in turn upsets the good people of the church. Sooner or later, investigating teenagers realize that there is something very wrong with the social system, and that Christian responsibility requires that something be done about it.
Youth ministry and the kingdom of God
To be faithful to all that Scripture teaches, the youth worker must lead young people to recognize that the gospel is not simply a story of individualistic salvation. The gospel is not about offering personal benefits to believers in the here and now, and pie-in-the-sky when they die. Sooner or later, the youth worker must point out that the gospel declares that the kingdom of God is at hand (Matthew 4:17). This kingdom requires justice for the poor. It is imperative that the up and coming generation recognize that the biblical Jesus was committed to the realization of a new social order in this world, in which the hungry will be fed; the naked will be clothed; and the poor will receive "good news" (Luke 4:18-19).
When Christ entered history, he did so to create a people through whom he could begin to change this world into the kind of world God willed for it to be when the world was created. This is why Jesus taught us to pray, "your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven" (Matthew 6:9-13, italics added). His teachings and parables were about the kingdom, and the last things Jesus taught his disciples before ascending into heaven concerned the kingdom of God (Acts 1:3).4
The kingdom of God is a societal system wherein things are ordered according to Gods will. In this kingdom there will be no poverty. No children will die in infancy because of a lack of nutrition and medical care; no ghetto teenagers will be blown away in gang warfare; everyone will have decent housing; and everyone will have a fair income derived from properly rewarded labor (Isaiah 65:17-25). The calling for Christian youth is to join with God in creating that kingdom here and now, while living in the expectation that at the second coming the good work initiated through them will be completed (Philippians 1:6). Becoming a Christian, therefore, is a call to social action. When young people understand this and begin to challenge injustices inherent in the dominant socioeconomic system, they are likely to experience opposition from those church members who have a vested interest in maintaining things just as they are.
The apostle Paul warns that, in any effort to transform this world into Gods kingdom, we must wrestle against principalities and powers and rulers in high places (Ephesians 6:12). For many Christian young people, this may require them to become countercultural. This was not difficult to imagine in the rebellious 60s, but for many youth at the turn of the century, who seem to have become all too comfortable with our affluent, attractive, seductive American social system, acting counterculturally can be very hard to do. It may mean opposing government policies or even standing against the destructive practices of multinational corporations from which their parents earn their livings.
The apostle Paul admonishes Christians that struggling against "the principalities and powers" of society is what spiritual warfare is all about. When he uses that phrase, Paul is not simply talking about demonic spirits or fallen angels, but is referring to any and all superhuman forces or institutions that exercise controlling influences on human behavior.5 For instance, the educational system is such a principality and power, in that it wields great influence over the consciousness of children and teenagers. The components of the economic system, with its corporate structures and its labor unions, also may be understood as principalities and powers. Likewise, political parties and administrations deserve this designation. And certainly the media, with their awesome opinion-creating abilities, deserve to be called principalities and powers. According to theologian Hendrik Berkhof, one of Karl Barth's favorite students, all principalities and powers were ordained into existence by God. Berkhof's reading of Colossians 1: 16 ("For by him all things were created: things in heaven an on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him.") leads us to believe that God is the creative force behind their formation Berkhof contends that God wills all social institutions into existence. However, following Paul's teachings, Berkhof also believes that these principalities and powers have taken on a life of their own, and have become rebellious against the will of their creator. Instead of facilitating good for humanity, as God intended them to do, these principalities and powers often became instruments of demonic forces that oppress peopleespecially poor people. Berkhof points out that the Pauline epistles call upon us to struggle against the principalities and powers (Ephesians 6:12) and calls the church to recognize that one of its responsibilities is to bring them into subjection to Christ (Ephesians 1:22). 6
Challenging principalities and powers: opportunities for youth ministry in a global context
Youth workers who accept this interpretation of Paul's teachings will probably challenge young people to recognize that being social activists is part of what it means to be Christian. Organizing young people to challenge educational bureaucracies that inadequately fund schools in poor neighborhoods and to attack unions that protect incompetent teachers will be seen as part of youth ministry. Calling upon young people to help elect politicians who are committed to such things as alleviating the oppression of third world countries and providing health care for the poor in the United States will be viewed as the ministry of youth workers. It does little good to sensitize young people to the sufferings of the poor or to help them see how principalities and powers create the sufferings that the poor must endure, unless we can also help young people see how they can change oppressive social structures to reflect God's justice.
Scenario: reducing third-world debt
In England, some Christian young people who wanted to challenge the principalities and powers oppressing the poor have formed an organization called SPEAK, which has lobbied for justice with various world governments. In their efforts to combat poverty, these young people have called upon the political leaders of rich countries to cancel the debts owed to them by third-world countries. They point out that, in the past, dictators of poor nations often borrowed money from rich nations to finance, among other things, gigantic war machines. In many instances, these totalitarian rulers pocketed for themselves billions of dollars that were earmarked for public assistance. All of this left the general public of these third-world nations deeply in debt, and today as much as half of all the tax dollars these people pay to their governments must be spent just to pay the interest on what they owe. This leaves little money for education, public health, and welfare. The young people involved in SPEAK contend that only if these debts are canceled can third-world countries begin to find the resources necessary to meet the basic needs of the poor.7
Efforts to cancel the debts of the worlds poor nations will be challenged by many in our churches. Those who demand lower taxes for middle class American families know that canceling the debts of third-world countries will interfere with having these demands met.8 At a recent meeting of Baptist leaders, a woman declared, "If those people in Third World countries are ever going to become responsible, they must recognize that they have got some debts to pay off." Even Christians may not realize that the poor who are victimized by such debts are not the ones who incurred them.
Scenario: Challenging unjust welfare reform
Many Christians accepted without question the recent changes in the American welfare systems. But while some saw the government's actions as welfare reform, others saw it as welfare repeal. Some Christians were concerned that new welfare laws lacked adequate directives controlling the bloc grants made to states to help welfare recipients make the transition to holding jobs. These people contended that if single mothers were to be forced off the welfare rolls, then adequate day care must be provided for their children, and proper job training must be made available to them. To express their concerns, a group of some 40 Christian activists demonstrated on behalf of those poor young people affected by these changes, and were arrested in the rotunda of the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.
Practicing civil disobedience in this manner seemed right to them, but to other thoughtful Christians, unlawful demonstration such as this was contrary to what Romans 13 teaches about being submissive to the government: "Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God" (Romans 13:1). This is just one example of how standing against the government on behalf of the poor can be polarizing and controversial for the church. The youth worker who gets the church's young people involved in such activities might soon be out of a job.
Scenario: opposing corporate abuse
At Eastern College, near Philadelphia, some young people decided to get involved in a stockholders' action against a large multinational company on behalf of the poor. These undergraduates focused on a corporation that controlled the sugar production in a small Caribbean nation. They bought stock in that corporation, and then attended stockholders' meetings to voice their concerns. They wanted the local company to raise the low wages paid to the sugar cutters and to provide medical care and education for the children who lived under the company's jurisdiction. Incredibly, after these students brought up their concerns at the annual stockholders' meeting, the corporation was responsive to their pleas. Over a five-year period, the corporation spent more than a half billion dollars to do what was right in the third-world country where it did business. But let it be known: a great deal of criticism followed these young women and men from church people who thought such action was inappropriate for Christian young people.9
Scenario: Standing for environmental Stewardship
Environmentalism is another issue that initiates a great deal of conflict within the life of the church with respect to the poor. Christian social action groups such as Evangelicals for Social Action and Target Earth have recognized the link between the plight of the poor and the destruction of the natural environment.10 For instance, while the population of Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, grows exponentially, the land available to grow food for its people is diminishing drastically. Almost 70 percent of the land that was usable for growing crops just two decades ago has now been eroded and rendered infertile. Each year, an area of the Amazon rain forest the size of the state of Washington is destroyed, displacing indigenous people and contributing to an oncoming ecological disaster. Meanwhile, in the Sahel region of Africa, the process of desertification is occurring so quickly that the Sahara Desert, which is the size of the United States, is expanding southward at the rate of two miles per year.
Everybody knows that as the earth loses its capacity to support all of its people, the poor will suffer disproportionately. Young people are being educated to understand the implications of the environmental holocaust for the poor. However, many adults remain indifferent to the ecological disaster that is at hand Some question whether the effort and expense of environmental awareness are really necessary. Some suggest that environmentalism endangers North American capitalism because its cost could render some of our industries less competitive in the world market. Still others see environmentalists' crusades as a cover-up for the New Age movement, believing environmentalism to be a satanic effort to lure young people away from the true God. Regardless of their motives, adults are aware that environmental care will require tax dollars and will restrict the laissez faire practices of government with regard to industries.11
A Matter of lifestyle: youth ministrys challenge to the church
Finally, when dealing with concern for the poor, youth workers must get teenagers to deal with the whole question of lifestyle. A careful reading of Scripture reveals over 2,000 verses specifying that the people of God must care for the poor. Most theologians are ready to point out that preference for the poor should be at the heart of the church's concerns. Furthermore, most young people realize (even without the help of theologians) that being Christian involves sacrificing personal wealth to help the economically deprived. Mother Teresa stands out for them as exemplifying the lifestyle they see as authentically Christian. They realize that if they are to take Jesus seriously, they will have to do what the rich young ruler failed to do and give up much of what they have to help the poor (Mark 10: 17-27). They are ready to believe that it's harder for a rich person to be part of God's kingdom than for a camel to go through the eye of a needle. When they put on a WWJD pin, they begin to sense that the Jesus they try to imitate would not buy into the affluent consumeristic lifestyle that has come to characterize their way of life.
The matter of lifestyle becomes especially difficult to handle in a world in which people in the United States, who compose 6 percent of the world's population, consume 42 percent of the earth's resources. Deep down inside, most young people know that there may be enough in the world to satisfy everyone's needs, but not enough to satisfy everyone's wants. Young people know that the artificial wants generated by the mediaand which have become so important to themcan be gratified only at the expense of the poor. There is a growing recognition among young people that the Nike sneakers and bargain clothes they buy at department stores in North American shopping malls are available primarily because poor people in third-world countries are exploited laborers.
It is in the matter of their own lifestyles that young people struggle most in dealing with their concerns for the poor. They find themselves constantly indoctrinated by media that advertise consumer items as necessary to a good life. Obtaining the products advertised on television motivates young people to stay in school. They are told that if they don't get a good education they won't get the jobs that will enable them to earn the money to buy the stuff they think they have to have. Herbert Marcuse, the neo-Marxist sociologist from San Diego State University, points out that, for this generation, media-created wants have become more important than real needs.12 Many young people find themselves torn between a sense that true Christianity requires them to sacrifice luxuries and give to the poor, and a craving for the things that the culture prescribes as essential for the good life.
A tale of two cities: revelation in a consumer culture
In the final analysis, young people must choose lifestyles with respect to the poor that will have ultimate significance. In the Book of Revelation (chapters 17-21), John describes two societal systems, each with its own values any way of life. First, there is Babylon. This refers to the dominant culture and its prescribed consumer lifestyles. Revelation 17:5 describes this system as "the great whore" because of its seductive character. According to Revelation 18, Babylon sustains itself by exploiting the earth's resources in an ecologically destructive manner that not only destroys the natural environment, but eventually consumes "the bodies and souls of men" (Revelation 18:13). The same seductive societal system is advertised in today's media, with allurements so attractive that many young people are willing to sacrifice their lives in order to have a piece of it.
Over and against Babylon, John sees an alternative societal lifestyle, which he labels Jerusalem. Biblical scholars generally declare that Jerusalem stands for the new social order as defined by God. Clearly outlined by the prophets, this society eliminates poverty because the people of God, who are Jerusalem's citizens, are committed to contributing to the well-being of others in accord with their abilities, and take only what meets their real needs (Acts: 2:44-45).
The question youth workers must answer in this context is, "Toward which societal system are we directing young people?" Are we directing them to live out their lives in Babylon and take their places comfortably in respected professional positions within its establishment? Or are we daring enough to call young people out of Babylon to be part of the new way of life that the Bible says belongs to Jerusalem? Are we willing to plead with young people not to conform to the affluent lifestyles of Babylon, lived at the expense of the poor and oppressed, and instead embrace a radically countercultural, simple lifestyle that comes from being transformed by the power of the Holy Spirit (Romans 12:1-2)?
For disaffected teenagers in urban slums or in rural shacks, our consumer society poses a special problem. Among them is despair of ever getting the products the media has made of utmost importance to them. It is not surprising that social deviance is the consequence of a society that indoctrinates young people with messages evoking intense desire for products that they lack the legitimate means to obtain. To live in a society in which everyone receives the same media messages leads to great frustration and anger among young people who are poor. These young people's family backgrounds, education and job opportunities are so limited that little possibility exists for them to ever earn salaries that would enable them to buy the things they are made to crave. Robert Merton, one of America's foremost sociologists, contends that such a social structure dooms such young people to seek out illegitimate means for getting what has been denied to them via legitimate means. 13
In his book Race Matters, Cornel West, chair of the Department of American Studies at Harvard, picks up on this insight and points out that African-American youth are especially hard hit by this reality. West contends that consumer society has generated a nihilism among poor African-American teenagers that most middle class youth workers find hard to understand.14 Poverty in a consumer society renders people "poor in spirit," and is psychologically destroying poor African-American youths who are powerless to secure what they have been made to feel they must have. It is hard-if not impossible-to encourage these alienated teenagers to embrace a biblically prescribed simple lifestyle. Not surprisingly, they are especially susceptible to a kind of religion that is based on prosperity theology and promises wealth and power to the faithful.
When white middle-class young people begin to empathize with the poor in their own society, it can have disturbing results. As a case in point, a group of students from Eastern College (a different group from those mentioned above) became deeply involved with the homeless of nearby Philadelphia. At first, they took food and clothing to those who lived in the streets in an all-too-typical middle-class way of helping the poor. But it was not long before they began to recognize that their homeless new friends were being victimized by police who harassed them and business owners who wanted them off the streets. The students committed themselves to championing the cause of the homeless against the city's establishment. When the police tried to keep the homeless from sleeping in public places, these young people slept out in the streets with them and then were duly arrested. Some of them dropped out of school so that they could give more time to helping their new friends. Some who were very talented graduates gave up professional careers to live their lives with these socially disinherited street folks. Together, these young people have rented a house in one of the most derelict sections of the city, where they live in community and have established a place where the homeless can come for help.
Obviously, such countercultural behavior stirs criticisms and concerns among these young people's parents, as well as unsettles many religious leaders of the city. Some youth workers have kept their youth groups away from these radical Christians, lest their young people get what they consider to be the "wrong idea" of what Christianity is all about. It is easy to see that impressionable young people might readily conclude that such a simple lifestyle and such strict obedience to the Sermon on the Mount is required of all those who call themselves followers of Jesus. What may be closer to the truth is that those youth workers covertly believe that these radical Christians with their simple lifestyles may be closer to consistent biblical Christianity than they are, and are embarrassed by that reality.
Connecting with the poor existentially, and reflecting on the biblical imperatives to minister to the poor, often has an impact on decisions regarding young people's life vocations. The more seriously they consider their responses to those who suffer injustice and oppression because of poverty, the more likely young people are to sense a calling that urges them to give their lives over to being advocates for the poor. Almost every youth worker who has taken a group of teenagers to work among the victims of poverty in a Third-World country can tell of young people who wanted to go back as missionaries and do what they could to help. The parents of these affluent youngsters seldom welcome such vocational commitments, and negative reactions can lead to family conflicts. No wonder Jesus said, "Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to turn a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law-a man's enemies will be the members of his own household" (Matthew 10:35-36). Youth workers may just find themselves caught between teenagers with a zeal for sacrificial service, and parents whose designs for their children's lives require establishment careers and comfortable adjustments to the dominant American socioeconomic system.
Servant leadership as a vocational goal of youth ministry
If youth workers encourage teenagers to pursue vocations in serving the poor, they should do t heir best to help these young people understand the ways in which servant leadership will be required to them. To imitate Jesus, according to Philippians 2, they must learn to "empty themselves" of their class and cultural biases and values. When Jesus came to minister to us, he set aside his power and glory, took upon himself the form of a servant, and humbled himself (Philippians 2:7-8). This is the model that must be imitated, and it is never too soon for youth workers to begin teaching teenagers that helping the poor paternalistically can be disabling and dehumanizing. Whether young people envision themselves as social workers in the urban United States, or as community-development missionaries in the third world, they should constantly be learning that there are ways of helping the poor, even well-intentioned ways, that diminish the dignity of poor people and give them a sense of powerlessness.
The Jewish Talmud outlines four ways of helping the poor:
1. The first and best way is to find or create real jobs for them. That way the poor can escape poverty with their self-respect intact. Being employed, they will have no need of a handout.
2. The second is to make work for the poor. The WPA programs during the Depression years that put people to work in public works projects and were invented primarily to give them work, are an example of this second best way the Talmud says to help the poor.
3. Third, the Talmud says we should give the poor what they need, but see to it that the poor have no idea who it was that provided for them. We need to look critically at the idea of youth groups delivering food baskets and toys to poor families at Christmas time, and then standing around to sing Christmas carols to them. It does not take much imagination to figure out what such condescending charity does to these poor families. I am not suggesting that our holiday giving should be discontinued. Instead, in accord with the Talmud, I am suggesting something like leaving the Christmas gifts by the back doors of poor families, running away, then calling them on the phone to say, "There's some stuff on the back steps! It's for you! This is God! And hanging up. The God who sees what is done in secret will reward the givers openly (Matthew 6:3-4).
4. The fourth and least desirable way to help the poor, according to the Talmud, is the all-too-typical handout. The poor will receive them because they are desperate, but they will resent the givers.
Given that the best way to help the poor is through job creation, there are many young people who are now planning to become missionary entrepreneurs, both in the United States and in developing countries. Some Christian colleges and universities have developed specialized academic programs to provide training in the skills needed to empower indigenous people to create small businesses and micro-industries that the poor can own and run themselves. A graduate from one such program has developed a silkscreen printing factory that employs young people who otherwise who have few job options. Another is working with the poor in Africa, helping them to operate a food processing plant. Still another has developed a program for battered women, in which battered women own and run a business that recharges used cartridges from laser printers.15
A survey of what youth workers have been doing recently to get teenagers to address the needs of the poor in encouraging. A suburban youth group in Ohio staffs a tutoring program in a poor section of Dayton. In Camden, New Jersey, more than 100 teenagers are involved in running summer street camping programs for at-risk children. Huge numbers of youth groups are regularly involved in fundraising activities that give financial support to ministries serving the poor. Compassion International, a child sponsorship organization that raises money to provide basic care for children in Third World countries, reports that there are thousands of high school students who are putting up the $24 a month required to support a child.16
There is much evidence that youth workers have had a great deal to do with all of this. In the 21st century, the church may have to say "thank you" to youth groups for leading them to address the needs of the poor and helping to rediscover that serving the poor is a dominant theme in Scripture. And behind all of this, youth workers may well be the unsung heroes and heroines.
1. Ivan Illich, speech for the Inter-American Student Projects, 1970.
2. An easy-to-read overview of the life and thought of St. Francis is C.K. Chesterton, St. Francis of Assisi (Garden City, New York: Image Books, 1957).
3. Praxis is a style of learning that requires reflection in the context of action. Those who apprehend truth through praxis believe that it is only when involved in existential struggles that we are capable of understanding what special interests and justifying ideologies are operative in defining the situation. For a fuller explanation of praxis in Christian thinking, see chapter 5 of Jose Miguez Bonino, Doing Theology in a Revolutionary Situation (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975).
4. See A.M. Hunter, Interpreting the Parables (Naperville, Illinois: SCM Book club, 1960).
5. See Albert van den Heuvel, These Rebellious Powers (Naperville, Illinois: SCM Book Club, 1966).
6. See Hendrik Berkhof, Christ and the Powers (Scottsdale, Pennsylvania: Herald Press), 1962.
7. For information on SPEAK, write to Louise Donkin, 38 St. Marys Park, Louth, Lincolnshire, LN11 OEF, United Kingdom
8. Christian Coalition, Contract with the American Family (Nashville: Moorings, 1996).
9. See Anthony Campolo, "The Greening of Gulf and Western," Eternity (January 1981), 30-32.
10. For information about Evangelicals for Social Action, write to ESA, 10 E. Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, 19096. For information on Target Earth, write to Gordon Aeschliman, Target earth, 900 Buttonwood Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19123.
11. For a fuller explanation of environmentalism from a Christian perspective, see Anthony Campolo, How to rescue the Earth without Worshipping Nature (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1992).
12. See Herbert Marcuse, One Dimensional Man (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964).
13. Robert Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure (New York: Free Press, 1968), chapters 6 and 7.
14. Cornel West, Race Matters (New York: Vintage Books, 1993).
15. All of these people graduated from Eastern College, which has had such a MBA program in place for more than a decade. More than 100 of its graduates are presently involved in micro-economic development projects both in the United States and in Third World countries. For information, write to the Graduate Admissions Office, Eastern College, 1300 Eagle Rd., St. Davids, Pennsylvania, 19087.
16. For information and video presentations of the ministries of Compassion International, write to Compassion International, 3955 Cragwood Rd., Box 7000, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80933.