Resolution on Sudan:
to Text of "Resolution on Sudan"
Annex 1: 1994 IGAD Declaration of Principles
Annex 2: NSCC People to People Peace Process Covenants and Follow-up
documents, June 1998-June 2001
Annex 3: Slavery in Sudan (compiled by NSCC and SCC)
Annex 4: Statement of the Sudanese Churches on the Oil Factor in the
Conflict in the Sudan
We, Representatives of the Governments of the Republic of the Sudan (hereinafter
referred to as the GOS), the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement / Sudan Peoples'
Liberation Army and the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement / Sudan Peoples' Liberation
Army - United (hereafter referred to as the SPLM / SPLA and SPLM / SPLA - United
Recalling the previous peace talks between the Government of the Sudan on the one hand,
the SPLM / SPLA and SPLM / SPLA - United on the other, namely Addis Ababa in August 1989,
Nairobi in December 1989, Abuja in May / July 1992, Abuja in April / May 1993, Nairobi in
May 1993, and Frankfurt in January 1992;
Cognisant of the importance of the unique opportunity afforded by the IGADD Peace
initiative to reach a negotiated peaceful solution to the conflict in the Sudan;
Concerned by the continued human suffering and misery in the war affected areas;
Hereby agree in the following Declaration of Principles (DoP) that would constitute the
basis for resolving the conflict in the Sudan;
1. Any comprehensive resolution of the Sudan conflict requires that all parties to the
conflict fully accept and commit themselves to that position that:
1.1. The history and nature of the Sudan conflict demonstrate that a military solution
can not bring lasting peace and stability to the country.
1.2. A peaceful and just political solution must be the common objective of the parties
to the conflict.
2. The rights of self-determination of the people of South Sudan to determine their
future status through a referendum must be affirmed; and
3. Maintaining unity of the Sudan must be given priority by all the parties provided
that the following principles are established in the political, legal, economic and social
framework of the country:
3.1. Sudan is a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural society.
Full recognition and accommodation of these diversities must be affirmed.
3.2. Complete political and social equalities of all peoples in the Sudan must be
guaranteed by law.
3.3. Extensive rights of self-administration on the basis of federation, autonomy,
etc., to the various peoples of the Sudan must be affirmed.
3.4. A secular and democratic state must be established in the Sudan. Freedom of belief
and worship and religious practices shall be guaranteed in full to all Sudanese citizens.
State and religion shall be separated. The basis of personal and family laws can be
religion and customs.
3.5. Appropriate and fair sharing of wealth among the various peoples of the Sudan must
3.6. Human rights as internationally recognized shall form part and parcel of this
arrangement and shall be embodied in Constitution.
3.7. The Independence of the Judiciary shall be enshrined in the Constitution and laws
of the Sudan.
4. In the absence of agreement on the above principles referred to in 3.1 to 3.7 the
respective people will have the option to determine their future including independence,
through a referendum.
5. An interim arrangement shall be agreed upon, the duration and the tasks of which
should be negotiated by the parties.
6. The parties shall negotiate a ceasefire agreement to enter into force as part of the
overall settlement of the conflict in the Sudan.
Nairobi, May 20, 1994
NSCC People to People Peace Process
Covenants and Follow-up documents
June 1998-June 2001
Nuer-Dinka Loki Accord
Lokichokio June 2-10, 1998
Nuer and Dinka Chiefs and Church leaders have met in a peace and reconciliation
meeting in Lokichokio, Kenya under the auspices of the New Sudan Council o fchurches
(NSCC). WE now issue this call for peace among our people.
After 15 years of conflict, we, the joint committee of chiefs and church leaders
That Commanders of both sides refrain from hostile acts
That local agreements be respected and honoured
A stop to cattle raiding
A stop to all killing, and abduction of women and children
To return recently abducted women and children to their homes
To stoop burning of homesteads
Permit free movement between Nuer and Dinka areas.
We have further agreed to hold a series of meetings throughout all communities in the
East and West Bank sof the Nile to pursue all possible means towards a just and lasting
peace in the land of Nuer and Dinka.
Names of 3 chiefs; 3 church leaders [illegible on the .gif file copy]
Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant
Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference
27 February - 8 March 1999
Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan
Dinka and Nuer Chiefs, church, civil and community leaders, elders, women and youth
have met in a peace and reconciliation meeting in Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan under the
auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC). We have established this Covenant of
peace and reconciliation and declare an end to seven and a half years of intense conflict.
We the participants hereby make and adopt the following Covenant and pledge ourselves
to observe and implement it scrupulously and conscientiously in keeping with the solemn
vows of peace, reconciliation and familial co-existence. We initiated our Conference with
the sacrifice of the White Bull (Mabior Thon / Tu-bor) and have sealed the Covenant
in Christian worship and traditional sacrifice.
We declare the following:
· All hostile acts shall cease
between Dinka and Nuer whether between their respective military forces or armed
civilians. A permanent cease-fire is hereby declared between the Dinka and Nuer people
with immediate effect.
· Amnesty is hereby declared for
all offences against people and property committed prior to 1/1/99 involving Dinka and
Nuer on the West Bank of the Nile River.
· Freedom of movement is affirmed
and inter-communal commerce, trade, development and services are encouraged.
· Local cross-border agreements
and arrangements are encouraged and shall be respected.
· It is hereby declared that
border grazing lands and fishing grounds shall be available immediately as shared
· Displaced communities are
encouraged to return to their original homes and rebuild relationships with their
· The spirit of peace and
reconciliation this Covenant represents must be extended to all of southern Sudan.
All Resolutions adopted by the Conference are hereby incorporated into this Covenant.
We appeal to the SPLM/A and the UDSF/SSDF to endorse, embrace and assist in
implementation of this Covenant and its Resolutions.
We appeal to the International Community to endorse, embrace and assist in
implementation of this Covenant and its Resolutions.
Official version: 10th March 1999
Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference
Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan
27th February to 8th March, 1999
Process used at Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Conference to develop Resolutions: The following
process was used to identify issues and develop resolutions that address the issues and
provide solutions for the identified problems:
· Storytelling and Issue
Identification: A little more than a full day was given to Dinka to tell their stories to
the Nuer and to surface the issues that were outstanding between Dinka and Nuer. This was
followed by a similar amount of time for story telling by the Nuer, including their
responses to what had been said by the Dinka. Finally a day was given for dialogue and
rebuttal, comments from key border chiefs, and observations from chiefs who had come as
observers from the east bank of the Nile River. The three and a half days of speaking
generated a list of issues and a number of proposals for solutions.
· Management Team Synthesis of
Issues: The Conference Management Team developed a list of six major categories that had
arisen out of the storytelling. Rappateurs were assigned for each group. The categories
and Rappateurs were:
1. Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees (Mr. Dhol Acuil Aleu)
2. Reclaiming the Land and Rebuilding Relationships (Dr. Peter Nyot Kok; Rev. Matthew
3. Institutional Arrangements (Dr. Wal Duany)
4. Monitoring the Borders (Mr. Telar Deng)
5. People Outside the Peace Process (Mr. Farouk Gatkuoth Kam)
6. Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria (Mr. John Luk Jok)
· Working Groups: Six working
groups were established with each one focused on a single issue category. It was decided
that the groups would work only in the Dinka and Nuer languages or Arabic where needed.
English translation would not be provided for observers because of the amount of time that
would be lost in an additional translation. The six issue areas were explained to the
conference delegates and they were encouraged to choose the area of their greatest
interest. There were thirty to sixty people in each working group. The groups worked for
half a day to develop their proposals.
· Plenary Presentations and
Consensus Approval: Each working group presented its proposals through its Rapporteur.
Discussion was held, additions and amendments were made and each set of recommendations
were adopted when consensus was gained.
I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
A. Girls who have been abducted but are not yet married.
1. Shall be repatriated to their parents/relatives as soon as they are identified.
B. Girls who have been Married in Captivity
1. As soon as they are identified they shall be asked by their parents/relatives if
they want to remain with their husbands.
2. If a woman declares that she wants to remain with her husband, than the bride wealth
must be collected and presented to her parents/relatives.
3. If she desires to return to her parents/relatives she is to be repatriated.
4. If there are children of the marriage, the natural father may choose to redeem the
children according to Dinka/Nuer traditions.
5. If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.
6. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the SPLA side, a letter should be
sent to Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, Chief of General Staff of SPLA, so that the girl is
able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her
soldier-husband or return to her family. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on
the UDSF side, a letter should be sent to Commander Elijah Hon Tap, Chief of Staff of
SSDF, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to
remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family.
· If she wants to return to her parents, then she must go.
· Whether she has a single child or several the natural father may choose to
redeem the children, according to the custom of the Dinka/Nuer.
· If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave
C. Married Women Abducted into Captivity
1. As soon as a woman in this category is identified she should be repatriated to
her home area with all her children born in captivity.
D. Boys or Men in Captivity.
1. In all cases boys and men who have been abducted and held in captivity shall be
freed and repatriated to their natural parents or guardians as soon as they are
2. A man who has been provided a wife by his captor must be asked where he himself
wants to live. If he chooses to return to live with his parents/relatives, then his family
shall pay the bride wealth which was paid by his captor.
3. If his father/relatives pay the bride wealth on his behalf, then he is free to
return to his land of origin with his children and wife.
E. Boys or Men who were abducted, then freed, and have settled on their own accord.
1. This group shall be left undisturbed wherever they are found. (Cases regarding
minors shall be handled according to Dinka/Nuer customary law.)
F. Creation of Abductee Identification Teams
1. On both Dinka and Nuer sides an Abductee Identification Team shall be formed
made up of chiefs. The two teams shall work together, accompanying each other on tours of
both Dinka and Nuer territories.
II. Resolutions Regarding: Reclaiming the Land and Rebuilding Relationships
(A provisional list was developed of villages and settlements that have been abandoned
due to the Dinka-Nuer conflict during the past seven and a half years and should be
considered for reconstruction. The Covenant encourages displaced communities to return to
their original homes and rebuild relationships with their neighbours. The provisional list
includes the names of more than 400 villages and settlements in Appendix A.)
A. Formation of a Technical and Planning Committee on Land Settlement and
Reclamation responsible for:
1. Advising on consolidation and relocation of villages and stations.
2. Advising on linking villages and settlements to productive areas, introduction of ox
ploughing, provision of bore wells, medical care, and veterinary services. Promotion of
joint Dinka-Nuer cattle and commodity markets.
A. Affirm Freedom of Movement in Peace and Security
1. We propose a market based near the border where Dinka and Nuer can trade
together, with all benefiting from the diversity of items and wealth we will be able to
A. Promotion of Dinka-Nuer Reconciliation and Familial Co-Existence.
1. Establishment of a Dinka-Nuer Veterinary Centre to be jointly shared by Dinka
and Nuer. This is to encourage a common concern for animal health as a vested interest
which needs to be protected.
2. Establishment of Dinka-Nuer co-operatives in agricultural and commercial fields.
3. Establishment of a model Dinka-Nuer Primary School near the border, with both Dinka
and Nuer students enrolled.
4. Produce a unified Re-statement of Dinka and Nuer Customary Law to assist the local
courts, law enforcement and administrative officials.
5. Establish an annual award that shall be conferred by the Council upon those who are
proficient in both Dinka and Nuer languages.
III. Resolutions Regarding: Institutional Arrangements
(*The list of border stations or police posts found in this section and the list in
section IV will be finalised in a meeting of the Peace Council in Ganyliel in November
1999. Between March and November 1999 the counties and provinces will work to harmonise
the two lists.)
1. Bahr el Ghazal Region shall have the following police posts:
1. 1. Adior
6. Meshra Acol
7. Majak Juer
8. Mayen Jur
9. Mayom Adony
2. Unity State shall have corresponding posts as follows:
1. 1. Dhiau Rid
3. The composition of the force command and other provisions shall include:
· · arms & ammunitions
· radio communication sets
1. 1. Joint police forces shall be formed during the dry season in the areas of
contact. This will assist in areas where conflict has arisen over grazing lands. A Joint
Police force from both Unity State and Bahr el Ghazal will work together in the grazing
and fishing areas during the dry season.
A. The Border Courts
1. We recommend the revival and strengthening of existing border courts as well as
training of para-legals to man the courts.
2. Re-affirm the present border chiefs and increase their numbers when necessary.
3. Border courts constituted in Bahr el Ghazal and Unity states shall consist of 5 to 7
4. Pending further arrangements the law applicable in both courts shall be customary
5. Convicts on either side shall be imprisoned where the offence was committed and
shall be treated in accordance with international human rights norms.
C. Appeal Processes
1. Border courts shall be courts of original jurisdiction except in capital
offences. (Capital offences go directly to the county or province judge.)
2. Appeals from border courts shall lie to the relevant peoples regional court .
3. Appeals from the peoples regional court shall lie to the county judge or
province judge as the case may be.
A. Dinka-Nuer Peace Council
1. Composition: Three members, one of whom shall be a woman, shall be chosen by
2. The Council shall meet twice a year and may meet upon the emergency call of the
3. The Council shall elect its chairperson at its first meeting and this person shall
serve in this office for a period of one year with effect from the date of his/her
4. The venue for the meetings shall alternate dependent on the security situation.
5. The Functions of the Council.
· To oversee the implementation of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and
· A budget shall be considered and prepared by each of the respective
administrations. In addition the council is urged to consider ways to involve the local
communities in supporting these structures ourselves.
· The council is also authorised to raise funds through appeals to
international and indigenous NGOs.
· Review annual performance and recommend future plans.
· Recommend a larger forum or meeting between Dinka/Nuer chiefs, elders and
political leaders in the event of serious violations of the Covenant and Resolutions.
· The Council shall maintain contacts with the political leadership on
IV. Resolutions Regarding: Monitoring the Borders
A. Border stations or posts for the purpose of monitoring the peace shall be
established at the following locations. *
(*The list of border stations or police posts found in this section and the list in
section IV will be finalised in a meeting of the Peace Council in Ganyliel in November
1999. Between March and November 1999 the counties and provinces will work to harmonised
the two lists.)
Pabwong Kau Akon
Papui Pakam Alothai
Adhel Muoth Nyibor
Makwac Adel Pagor
Akop Athieng Ruol
Majak Juer Acier Cok
Mangar Deng Kwal Aru
B. Each district is to have a radio, totalling 9 radios
· 5 of these are for Bahr el Ghazal
· 4 are for Western Upper Nile. (This does not include the Bul section since
they were not present. Additional radios may be needed in the future.)
A. Stations will be manned by police and border chiefs.
B. Disarmament: As peace comes to an area, all citizens holding firearms are either
to be disarmed or join the army. The local civilian militia are called Jiec-nin-bor in
Nuer, or Gelweng in Dinka. The unanamous decision was that once peace is
established there would be no need for these. Both Dinka and Nuer agree that these are a
source of insecurity at the border, and a source of insecurity internally. The disarmament
process is to be done in three stages:
o All armed civilian forces
are to immediately come under the discipline of the military forces in each area;
o Firearms held by civilians
shall be registered according to chieftainships;
As peace comes to an area, arms are to be stored in local armouries under the control
of the local authorities.
V. Resolutions Regarding: People Outside the Peace Process
A. The concerned authorities of the Conference, Dinka and Nuer, are to disseminate the
Covenant and Resolutions of the Conference in their areas with the assistance of the local
authorities and the New Sudan Council of Churches.
B. The Conference calls on Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Paulino Matip Nhial to join the
peace and reconciliation process and embrace the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and
C. The Conference calls on Dr. Riek Machar and the peace-loving people of Upper Nile to
use their influence to bring Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Paulino Matip Nhial to the peace
D. The Conference makes the following recommendations:
1. A letter shall be written to Dr. John Garang and Riek Machar urging them to
resolve their differences and embrace and promote the peace and reconciliation process.
2. Once the conflicting communities in the south are reconciled, it is recommended that
an inclusive peace and reconciliation conference be organised among southern political
3. The Conference extends its gratitude to the NSCC for facilitating this important
conference, and to the SPLM/SPLA for allowing this conference in Tonj County and for
providing adequate security. Our gratitude also goes to the UDSF for having confidence in
the security arrangements made by SPLA and for allowing delegates from UDSF controlled
VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and
A. "Why do we want to extend this peace to the other side?"
1. The Dinka and Nuer of the East Bank of the Nile are equally in conflict as are
those on the West side of the Nile.
2. We need peace for the entire South so that all can live in harmony.
B. The conflicts to be addressed in the East Bank are:
· Nuer-Dinka Bor
· Murle-Nuer and Murle- Dinka Bor
· Lou Nuer-Gaawar Nuer
C. The conflicts to be addressed in Equatoria are:
· Taposa - Didinga
· Didinga-Displaced Nilotics
· Mandari-Dinka Bor
D. Recommended Mechanisms or modalities for taking this peace to the East Bank
1. Holding a peace conference on the East Bank among the Nuer, Dinka Bor, Murle,
Shilluk, and Anyua.
2. Holding a mini-peace and reconciliation conference among the Lou and Gaawar Nuer.
3. Holding a peace and reconciliation conference in Equatoria to resolve conflicts.
4. Holding a general peace conference for south Sudan.
5. Form a peace enlightenment committee to explain the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and
Resolutions and educate the people on the peace process.
6. Copies of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions should be widely
disseminated to all communities and regions of the south as well as the Diaspora.
E. Participants in these conferences will be similar to what was done in Wunlit:
3. Church leaders
5. Representatives from the SPLM and the USDF
6. Members of self-organised ethnic militia
7. Traditional spiritual leaders
8. Observers from Bahr el Ghazal and Western Upper Nile
9. Intellectuals from the Diaspora
F. These conferences shall be organised by:
4. Community Leaders and chiefs
5. Womens Leaders
F. Roles for each group
o Fundraising and
o Transport of delegates to
2. UDSF will ensure the security of the East Bank Conference
3. SPLA will co-ordinate with the NSCC and UDSF concerning security and transport of
delegates from its area to the Conference site.
4. Chiefs and Community Leaders
o Building of Conference
o Contribute cattle and
foodstuffs locally available
o Mobilise and inform the
local population concerning peace and reconciliation
o As organised by local
2. Venue and Date Options:
o Venue options: Akobo, Waat,
o Date options: To be decided
2. Other Peace and Reconciliation Conferences
o Mini-Conference for Lou
& Gaawar, proposed for April
o Peace Conference in
Equatoria. After holding the major conference in the East Bank a second major
Conference should be prepared in Equatoria.
All South Inclusive Conference. This largest and most inclusive gathering shall
follow the Conference in Equatoria, and will include representatives from all areas of the
South: Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal, and Upper Nile. It will encompass not only the
grassroots civilian population (as the Wunlit conference) but also political and other
leaders. All groups, of every persuasion and faction will meet in an atmosphere of great
flexibility. All participants will be entitled to speak and contribute freely.
Waat Lou Nuer Covenant
6 November 1999
The Lou Nuer met in a People-to-People Peace and Governance Conference in Waat, Sudan
under the auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC) from 1-7 November 1999.
Delegates came from all districts in addition to Lou who came from Malakal, Khartoum and
Today, we declare an end to years of internal conflicts among our people, battles
between different factions, and at least three different military forces and civil
administrations. Our internal strife has made us vulnerable to conflicts with our
neighbors on every side, and the Government of Sudan has armed various groups within our
midst to stir up confusion and destruction. We have sealed this Covenant, with its
included Resolutions, by the traditional sacrifice of a White Bull (Tu-Bor) and
with Christian worship.
We have met to establish a lasting peace, to build a common system of governance and to
appeal to others to join us in rebuilding our communities and spreading this peace and
reconciliation to all of south Sudan.
We have agreed to the following:-
o An end to all conflicts
among Lou Nuer
o Amnesty for offenses against
persons and property prior to 1 November 1999
o A call to all Lou people to
return to home areas and embrace the peace
o Extending the hand of peace
to Gaawar Nuer to our west and Jikany Nuer to our East. We stand ready to resolve any
outstanding issues and build a permanent peace.
o Extending the hand
of peace to all neighbouring people on the East Bank of the Nile. With the NSCC, we invite
all Nilotic peoples on the East Bank of the Nile to send delegations in February 2000 for
a People-to-People peace conference.
o Strongly urge our political
and military leaders to construct civil and military governance systems that will unite
all Nuer people and contribute to a reconciled and united south Sudan. This system must be
outside the control of the Government of Sudan or persons working in Government of Sudan
controlled areas of the country.
o A separation of civil and
judicial administration from the military administration;
o Empowerment of chiefs to
handle all local judicial cases and a rebuilding of the civil judicial system;
o Establishment of a police
system that will maintain order within our communities and be accountable to the civil
o Instruct all civil
administrators to be accountable for their areas, to the people, and to work in a close
and transparent manner with indigenous and international NGOs;
o Require the regular military
and the White Army to demobilize all children under age fifteen;
o Commit ourselves to
development of water resources that enable us to have permanent communities, the
establishment of schools for our children, health care for our people, and food to sustain
ourselves all year.
Appeals from Lou Nuer
o To all Nuer: Appeal for
unity, peace and shared responsibility for security within a unified political
o To all Neighbors: We declare
a unilateral, permanent cease-fire and express our desire to build peace with our
o To all Southerners: We
appeal for an unending commitment to unite south Sudan so that security is assured, our
political objectives are realized and our rights protected.
o To all Friends of South
Sudan: We appeal for partners who will help us rebuild our communities, strengthen our
civil administration, and provide support for our common security.
A Word of Promise: We will protect this peace against anyone from within our ranks
or who would come against us from the outside attempting to destroy our unity and peace.
For this peace we are willing to die so that our children may live in peace and enjoy this
good land that God has given to us.
LILIIR COVENANT between the
ANYUAK, DINKA, JIE, KACHIPO, MURLE AND NUER who attended the
EAST BANK PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE PEACE & RECONCILIATION CONFERENCE in
LILIIR, BOR COUNTY, UPPER NILE, SUDAN
(May 9th to the 15th, 2000)
A gathering of traditional and civil leaders was convened in Liliir (Bor, county),
to reconcile the differences and conflicts between the Anyuak, Dinka (Bor & Padang),
Jie, Kachipo, Murle (Boma) and Nuer (Gawaar & Lou), and to establish harmony and peace
amongst themselves. The spirit of the conference was reflected at the opening by the
ceremonial sacrifice of a White Bull, and concluded with the declaration of a
joint covenant between the represented ethnic groups. The covenant was sealed with the
sacrifice of a White Ox, the offering of Christian worship, and the signatures
of each of the participating delegates and observers, publicly recorded. The following
outlines their covenant:
"Under the facilitation of the NSCC, and witnessed by many church leaders and
other citizens of Sudan, we, the delegates of the Liliir conference have established a
covenant of peace and reconciliation between us. We declare our intention today to cease
from hostile acts, and commit ourselves to the practical measures necessary to ensure the
integrity and sustainability of our agreement. Recalling the spirit and wisdom handed down
from our ancestors, and the memory of our daughters and sons who have unnecessarily died
over the past 10 years, we pledge ourselves to observe and implement this covenant and its
We have unanimously agreed that:
all traditional hostilities will cease among us, and that all military (and militia)
groups are to respect the civilian population and abide by, and protect, this covenant;
the conditions necessary to foster local peace and development are brought about by our
communities and leaders, and the provision of basic essential services for the people are
made available and improved;
an amnesty will be upheld for all offences against our people and their property prior
to the conference, in the spirit of reconciliation and unity. The amnesty takes effect
from this date;
all abducted women and children are freely returned to their places of origin, and
where necessary, marriage customs are fulfilled;
freedom of movement across our common borders is upheld, and trade and communication is
encouraged and supported;
all cross border agreements are respected and the authority of the border chiefs and
police patrols are justly observed;
access to common areas for grazing, fishing and water points will be regulated and
shared peacefully among us;
we will demand good governance from our leaders for the achievement of unity and the
observance of human rights;
we will advocate on behalf of our sisters and brothers who have been scattered and
displaced, especially those from the Bor area, for their return to their homeland with the
encouragement and co-operation of their communities, leaders and civil authorities of
In conclusion, we appeal that the people from Upper Nile who were either blocked or did
not have an opportunity to participate in the conference be told about our deliberations
and be encouraged to meet with us in the near future so that the East Bank peoples
peace process can be widened and deepened. This covenant reflects the will of the people
represented at Liliir. It incorporates the resolutions of the conference (attached), and
we urge that they be implemented with the full assistance and protection of the civil
authorities under all of the southern liberation movements. We hope that the friends of
Upper Nile will support our efforts and consolidate our desire for peace." (15.05.00)
NSCC Official Version, 8 November, 1999
People-To-People Peace Process
22nd to the 25th of November, 2000
AN EVALUATION OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES OF THE MAJOR PEACE AGREEMENTS
ESTABLISHED IN WUNLIT, WAAT AND LILIIR BY PARTICIPATING REPRESENTATIVES FROM TRADITIONAL
AND COMMUNITY LEADERS
"THE PEOPLE TO PEOPLES PEACE PROCESS IS ABOUT OUR LIVES AND OUR FUTURE, AND
THE UNITY OF ALL SUDANESE PEOPLE STRUGGLING FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE"
In the company of Church leaders, and under the facilitation of NSCC, 25 traditional
and community leaders participated in an evaluation of the progress achieved through the
people to peoples peace initiative and made recommendation for strengthening the
process in the future. The meeting was held in Wulu, Rumbek county of Bahr el Ghazal
region, between the 22nd and the 25th of November, 2000. Representatives came from Upper
Nile (Anyuak, Murle & Nuer), Bahr el Ghazal (Bel & Dinka) and from the Nuba
Mountains (south Kordofan). The meeting deeply regretted, that for a variety of logistical
reasons, representation from Equatoria and South Blue Nile were unable to attend the
The following sets out the core observations and recommendations made by the gathering.
A more detailed list of recommendations is found in the annex attached. Finally, a
comprehensive report on the participants deliberations will be made available before
the next official people to peoples peace conference takes place.
KEY POINTS RAISED BY THE TRADITIONAL AND COMMUNITY LEADERS DURING THE EVALUATION
· a conclusive consensus that the peace covenants sealed at Wunlit, Waat and
Liliir have brought a new hope to the people, and are positively transforming the quality
of the lives of those who have benefited from the agreements. All participants offered
practical examples of how the peace agreements are working at the local level, and how the
spirit of reconciliation and good will is sustaining and spreading across the border
· a number of examples were also recorded of where resolutions have yet to
be implemented: especially the introduction of basic services and support for communities
who wish to return to their previously abandoned home areas (see annex for more details).
As a matter of priority, all participants appealed to NSCC, and all those in a position to
deliver essential services, to focus on communities who have reconciled, and encourage and
consolidate their achievements of peace.
· that the character of the peace process is growing into a collective,
southern-wide expression for unity and peace. Participants appealed for unity among all
Sudanese struggling for their liberation. They insisted that the peoples peace
dialogues should never be mistaken as a chiefly Dinka-Nuer process, but one intended for
and made available to all the peoples of southern Sudan (i.e. Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile,
Western & Eastern Equatoria, Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile).
· that when promoting peace and unity among the people, traditional leaders
must assume their responsibilities with honesty and humility, and with courage to speak
out truthfully. They must not deceive the people, nor be deceived by forces contrary to
· that the future sustainability of the peace process will depend on the
political will of the collective southern leadership (i.e. traditional, political,
religious and other civil society leaders) to promote unity and the spirit of
reconciliation, and oversee the institution of good governance systems throughout the
regions. The participants stressed, that unless there is greater clarity and commitment to
the promotion of unity, and genuine attempts to institute the rule of law, that those
seeking reconciliation and peace will be undermined and the liberation struggle threatened
· that the peace process is facing another immense threat through the
continued exploitation of oil in southern Sudan. The participants especially urged those
from the international community, who are genuinely interested in peace with justice in
Sudan, to publicly demonstrate their intentions for peace and ensure an immediate halt to
the extraction of this natural resource which is prolonging the war, and bringing
increased divisions, suffering and death.
· that NSCC should urgently convene a follow up meeting, this time with
representatives from all of the 3 regions of the south, the Nuba Mountains and South Blue
Nile. Invitations should be offered to those already associated with the people to
peoples peace process, from community and traditional leaders from all the regions,
from religious institutions, from civil society organisations and groups (including a
proportionate representation of women and youth leaders), from the military, and from the
Diaspora of southerners - including former political leaders (who can throw light on our
previous political history). The purpose of this wider meeting is to create a platform for
the people to express their desire for unity, justice and peace, and for the conditions
that will sustain peace, and seek a consensus around how this aspiration will be
The Wulu meeting endorsed the people to people peace process, and expressed optimism
over its power to bring reconciliation and peace. The initiative was summed up by the
participants as a process that concerns their lives and their future, and one that must
reach out to all of the regions of the south, and to the Nuba Mountains and South Blue
Nile. However the participants cautioned the facilitators, that if the conditions to
sustain unity and peace are not urgently put in place, the future of the peace process
will be in jeopardy. For this reason, the evaluation appealed for another follow up
meeting and asked NSCC to ensure that wide-spread participation will be present.
Statement issued through the New Sudan Council of Churches: 28.11.00
STRATEGIC LINKAGES II: KISUMU, KENYA, JUNE 16-23, 2001
The participants of the Kisumu Conference affirm that:
1. Liberation is the common and prime agenda for people of southern Sudan (including
Abyei), Nuba Mountains, and South Blue Nile and that it is the people who are at the
center of the liberation struggle.
2. Self-determination is the central objective of the peoples liberation
a. This inalienable right of self-determination should be exercised through
internationally supervised referendums for all marginalized areas struggling for
liberation as mentioned above.
b. There should be an extensive program of civic education in preparation for the
c. Common commitment to self-determination should be a unifying factor for everyone
involved in the struggle for liberation.
The participants of the Kisumu Conference resolve that:
3. All movements should:
a. Immediately cease hostilities amongst themselves and commit to open dialogue to
resolve political differences.
b. Establish peace desks in collaboration with civil society organizations, coordinate
and share information amongst themselves, and maintain close contact with the NSCC
4. The SPLM should:
a. Clarify its position particularly in blocking participation of civilian
participants to this conference vis-a-vis the National Convention (1994), Civil Society
Conference (1996) and the SPLM/A-Church Dialogue (1997), and the democratic positions
espoused in these documents concerning freedom of movement and assembly.
b. Take appropriate actions to prevent those Nuer who join SPLM/A from attacking their
5. The Nuer community should:
a. With facilitation of NSCC, bring together leaders of SSLM and SPDF to establish
a framework for unity and peace.
6. The NSCC should:
a. Continue and strengthen dialogue with SPLM in a timely manner to bring it and
the people in the areas under its control back into the people-to-people peace process.
b. Organize individual meetings with all the movement leaders to establish the
foundation for a further inclusive meeting on the peace process. This process should begin
with SPLM and SPDF, but they should not prevent progress with all other movements.
c. Fully involve all elements of civil society in the process of reconciliation and
i. Ensure that women are empowered and have an active voice at all levels of the
people-to-people peace process in acknowledgement of their importance in the formation of
values and historical exclusion.
ii. Ensure that youth are wholly represented in the process.
d. Encourage grass-root dialogue, forming community
peace committees that should be morally supported by the various political movements. The
grassroots process should remain independent from the movements.
e. Review the talks held in 1991-92 to reconcile
the split between the Torit and Nasir factions, to ascertain whether the reasons for
failure of negotiations are still valid.
f. Develop conceptual framework for southern unity in dialogue with the movements.
g. Ensure that Equatoria is encouraged and facilitated to participate fully in the
people-to-people peace process.
h. Maintain and protect its neutrality, independence from political interference, and
spiritual growth and strengthen its capacity to lead the process and manage complex
i. Engage more fully regional churches and church councils, including FECCLAHA, in the
j. Ensure that all participants in the people-to-people peace process should have an
accurate written record with consistent high quality translations so that all groups are
able to present an accurate, detailed, and unified message to their constituencies.
k. Assume responsibility for all levels of people to people process through:
i. Improved field-based monitoring, reporting and evaluation
ii. Establishment of early warning mechanisms
iii. Sensitization of local populations
iv. Establishment of mechanisms to sustain peace (including common services at borders)
l. In collaboration with the donor community, international organizations on the
ground, and other elements of civil society, fully implement the recommendations and
resolutions of previous conferences.
m. Immediately implement the planned Nuer-Nuer peace conferences and actively support
the Nuer Peace Committee.
n. Provide in conjunction with others organizations appropriate peace and conflict
o. Expand and strengthen Radio Voice of Hope to support the people-to-people peace
process, and encompass civic messages and education.
7. The International community should:
a. Respond to the humanitarian tragedy in all parts of southern Sudan, the Nuba
Mountains, and South Blue Nile.
b. Establish an internationally supervised military no-fly zone covering southern
Sudan, the Nuba Mountains, and Southern Blue Nile to prevent aerial bombardment of
c. Continue support for the IGAD-facilitated peace negotiations, which should be
expanded to include other opposition forces fighting for the right of self-determination
and voices from civil society, and remain based on the declaration of principles (DOP),
which affirms the right of self-determination.
d. Continue to support the NSCC in the implementation of the people-to-people peace
process through continued funding of activities and capacity development support.
e. Bring pressure to bear on international oil companies to cease oil exploration and
exploitation until there is a comprehensive and just peace agreement.
f. Provide support to start the campaign against HIV/ADIS.
The conference participants believe firmly that:
8. All elements of southern Sudanese society must recognize the dire threat that
HIV/AIDS poses and must take measures to prevent it.
9. The practice of enslavement and trade in human beings must be condemned and halted
by all elements of Sudanese society and the international community.
10. This conference wishes to extend its thanks to the Kenya government and the people
SLAVERY IN SUDAN
Three items of background information to contribute to the debate
1. Joint statement by Sudan Council of Churches (SCC) and New Sudan Council of Churches
(NSCC) issued in Geneva in July 1999:
§ The issue of slavery should be looked at in the context of the crisis in
§ When the crises in Sudan are brought to an end, slavery will also come to
§ Partners should support the efforts of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights
to end slavery in Sudan.
§ With all the good intentions in slave redemption, it does not end slavery.
2. Slavery vs. Abduction
The Government of Sudan has argued that the word "slavery" is inappropriate
and should be replaced by "abduction". Some of its supporters (eg Opinion:
"Slavery" in Sudan: when is a "slave" not a "slave"?
British-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, London, 01/03/00) have compared with abduction as
practiced by a number of southern Sudanese tribes.
At a meeting of NSCCs Sudan Advocacy Resource Group in Nairobi in March 2000 the
question was addressed. The consensus was that there is a profound difference between
slavery and abduction and it rests on the treatment, status, and potential upward mobility
of the victim after capture. Amongst southern tribes victims are abducted to strengthen
the tribe. They are totally assimilated into the abducting tribe and usually have all the
rights and responsibilities of a tribe member. A Dinka captured by the Nuer becomes
a Nuer. They can even aspire to leadership within the new tribe. In slavery, the victim
remains a slave. A slave is "property" and can be sold. Even southern slaves who
convert to Islam and might technically be "freed" still do not gain equal rights
with northerners in practice.
This does not imply approval of abduction as practiced by southern tribes; indeed the
NSCC People to People Peace Process recognizes abduction as part of the problem between
tribes and seeks to deal with it and bring reconciliation.
3. Background Information
A couple of years ago Sudan Update and Christian Aid UK produced booklets on slavery in
Sudan which provide a fairly balanced analysis of this complex problem which is all too
often tackled in a simplistic or polarized manner. Contact Peter Verney at firstname.lastname@example.org
<mailto:email@example.com> or Phil Crane at firstname.lastname@example.org
<mailto:email@example.com> for more details.
STATEMENT OF THE SUDANESE CHURCHES ON THE OIL FACTOR
IN THE CONFLICT IN THE SUDAN
The Sudanese Churches believe that the oil, found in the southern Sudan
Bentiu,Pariang, Melut, Jonglei etc) is a national resource that should be used to develop
all the people of the Sudan. Since it started the exploitation of the oil last year 1999,
the government of the Sudan has however not used the revenues from the oil for the
development of the people of Sudan and in particular those in the oil areas who throughout
history were neglected in terms of equitable allocation of the national resources.
Instead, the oil revenues have been used for the purchase of military necessities and
weapons used for killing and displacing people in these oil areas. The government's
military capacity is strengthened with these revenues and it seems that the government has
assumed that it can end the conflict militarily.
Further, the government is using the roads and airstrips of the multi-national oil
companies engaged in the production of oil in the Sudan, for military purposes, carrying
out aerial bombardment on civilian targets (Hospitals, Schools, markets, Churches etc) in
the southern Sudan, Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile.
In the past the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC) has issued a statement with its
partners calling for establishment of a Trust Fund to receive the oil revenues for the
Sudan government. It was proposed that these revenues be apportioned fairly in accordance
with an agreement to be developed by the IGAD. Such an arrangement has proven unworkable.
As the Shepherds of the population in the Sudan and eye witnesses to the on going
genocide in the above mentioned areas, we call upon peace loving people and the
international community to take immediate actions to STOP the on going genocide in the
Sudan. This includes the withdrawal of the oil companies helping the government of the
Sudan to confidently pursue the war and a call for No-fly zone for military aircraft's
over the southern Sudan, Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile, which should be monitored.
This is to reinforce our call for the same through FECCLAHA forum in Limuru (Kenya) on the
23rd of March 2000.
Rev. David Demey
Chairman, Sudan Council of Churches (SCC)
Rev. John Okumu
Chairman, New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC)
Rev. Enock Tombe Stephen
General Secretary, Sudan Council of Churches
Rev. Dr. Haruun L Ruun
Executive Secretary, New Sudan Council of Churches
Geneva, 12th April 2000