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Resolution on Sudan: Annexes

Return to Text of "Resolution on Sudan"

Annex 1: 1994 IGAD Declaration of Principles
Annex 2: NSCC People to People Peace Process Covenants and Follow-up documents, June 1998-June 2001
Annex 3: Slavery in Sudan (compiled by NSCC and SCC)
Annex 4: Statement of the Sudanese Churches on the Oil Factor in the Conflict in the Sudan


We, Representatives of the Governments of the Republic of the Sudan (hereinafter referred to as the GOS), the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement / Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army and the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement / Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army - United (hereafter referred to as the SPLM / SPLA and SPLM / SPLA - United respectively):

Recalling the previous peace talks between the Government of the Sudan on the one hand, the SPLM / SPLA and SPLM / SPLA - United on the other, namely Addis Ababa in August 1989, Nairobi in December 1989, Abuja in May / July 1992, Abuja in April / May 1993, Nairobi in May 1993, and Frankfurt in January 1992;

Cognisant of the importance of the unique opportunity afforded by the IGADD Peace initiative to reach a negotiated peaceful solution to the conflict in the Sudan;

Concerned by the continued human suffering and misery in the war affected areas;

Hereby agree in the following Declaration of Principles (DoP) that would constitute the basis for resolving the conflict in the Sudan;

1. Any comprehensive resolution of the Sudan conflict requires that all parties to the conflict fully accept and commit themselves to that position that:

1.1. The history and nature of the Sudan conflict demonstrate that a military solution can not bring lasting peace and stability to the country.

1.2. A peaceful and just political solution must be the common objective of the parties to the conflict.

2. The rights of self-determination of the people of South Sudan to determine their future status through a referendum must be affirmed; and

3. Maintaining unity of the Sudan must be given priority by all the parties provided that the following principles are established in the political, legal, economic and social framework of the country:

3.1. Sudan is a multi-racial, multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural society. Full recognition and accommodation of these diversities must be affirmed.

3.2. Complete political and social equalities of all peoples in the Sudan must be guaranteed by law.

3.3. Extensive rights of self-administration on the basis of federation, autonomy, etc., to the various peoples of the Sudan must be affirmed.

3.4. A secular and democratic state must be established in the Sudan. Freedom of belief and worship and religious practices shall be guaranteed in full to all Sudanese citizens. State and religion shall be separated. The basis of personal and family laws can be religion and customs.

3.5. Appropriate and fair sharing of wealth among the various peoples of the Sudan must be realized.

3.6. Human rights as internationally recognized shall form part and parcel of this arrangement and shall be embodied in Constitution.

3.7. The Independence of the Judiciary shall be enshrined in the Constitution and laws of the Sudan.

4. In the absence of agreement on the above principles referred to in 3.1 to 3.7 the respective people will have the option to determine their future including independence, through a referendum.

5. An interim arrangement shall be agreed upon, the duration and the tasks of which should be negotiated by the parties.

6. The parties shall negotiate a ceasefire agreement to enter into force as part of the overall settlement of the conflict in the Sudan.

Nairobi, May 20, 1994

NSCC People to People Peace Process
Covenants and Follow-up documents

June 1998-June 2001

Nuer-Dinka Loki Accord

Lokichokio June 2-10, 1998

Nuer and Dinka Chiefs and Church leaders have met in a peace and reconciliation meeting in Lokichokio, Kenya under the auspices of the New Sudan Council o fchurches (NSCC). WE now issue this call for peace among our people.

After 15 years of conflict, we, the joint committee of chiefs and church leaders demand:

That Commanders of both sides refrain from hostile acts

That local agreements be respected and honoured

A stop to cattle raiding

A stop to all killing, and abduction of women and children

To return recently abducted women and children to their homes

To stoop burning of homesteads

Permit free movement between Nuer and Dinka areas.

We have further agreed to hold a series of meetings throughout all communities in the East and West Bank sof the Nile to pursue all possible means towards a just and lasting peace in the land of Nuer and Dinka.


Names of 3 chiefs; 3 church leaders [illegible on the .gif file copy]


Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant

Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference

27 February - 8 March 1999

Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan

Dinka and Nuer Chiefs, church, civil and community leaders, elders, women and youth have met in a peace and reconciliation meeting in Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan under the auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC). We have established this Covenant of peace and reconciliation and declare an end to seven and a half years of intense conflict.

We the participants hereby make and adopt the following Covenant and pledge ourselves to observe and implement it scrupulously and conscientiously in keeping with the solemn vows of peace, reconciliation and familial co-existence. We initiated our Conference with the sacrifice of the White Bull (Mabior Thon / Tu-bor) and have sealed the Covenant in Christian worship and traditional sacrifice.

We declare the following:

All hostile acts shall cease between Dinka and Nuer whether between their respective military forces or armed civilians. A permanent cease-fire is hereby declared between the Dinka and Nuer people with immediate effect.

Amnesty is hereby declared for all offences against people and property committed prior to 1/1/99 involving Dinka and Nuer on the West Bank of the Nile River.

Freedom of movement is affirmed and inter-communal commerce, trade, development and services are encouraged.

Local cross-border agreements and arrangements are encouraged and shall be respected.

It is hereby declared that border grazing lands and fishing grounds shall be available immediately as shared resources.

Displaced communities are encouraged to return to their original homes and rebuild relationships with their neighbors.

The spirit of peace and reconciliation this Covenant represents must be extended to all of southern Sudan.

All Resolutions adopted by the Conference are hereby incorporated into this Covenant.

We appeal to the SPLM/A and the UDSF/SSDF to endorse, embrace and assist in implementation of this Covenant and its Resolutions.

We appeal to the International Community to endorse, embrace and assist in implementation of this Covenant and its Resolutions.

Official version: 10th March 1999


Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference


Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan

27th February to 8th March, 1999

Process used at Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Conference to develop Resolutions: The following process was used to identify issues and develop resolutions that address the issues and provide solutions for the identified problems:

Storytelling and Issue Identification: A little more than a full day was given to Dinka to tell their stories to the Nuer and to surface the issues that were outstanding between Dinka and Nuer. This was followed by a similar amount of time for story telling by the Nuer, including their responses to what had been said by the Dinka. Finally a day was given for dialogue and rebuttal, comments from key border chiefs, and observations from chiefs who had come as observers from the east bank of the Nile River. The three and a half days of speaking generated a list of issues and a number of proposals for solutions.

Management Team Synthesis of Issues: The Conference Management Team developed a list of six major categories that had arisen out of the storytelling. Rappateurs were assigned for each group. The categories and Rappateurs were:

1. Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees (Mr. Dhol Acuil Aleu)

2. Reclaiming the Land and Rebuilding Relationships (Dr. Peter Nyot Kok; Rev. Matthew Mathiang Deang)

3. Institutional Arrangements (Dr. Wal Duany)

4. Monitoring the Borders (Mr. Telar Deng)

5. People Outside the Peace Process (Mr. Farouk Gatkuoth Kam)

6. Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria (Mr. John Luk Jok)

Working Groups: Six working groups were established with each one focused on a single issue category. It was decided that the groups would work only in the Dinka and Nuer languages or Arabic where needed. English translation would not be provided for observers because of the amount of time that would be lost in an additional translation. The six issue areas were explained to the conference delegates and they were encouraged to choose the area of their greatest interest. There were thirty to sixty people in each working group. The groups worked for half a day to develop their proposals.

Plenary Presentations and Consensus Approval: Each working group presented its proposals through its Rapporteur. Discussion was held, additions and amendments were made and each set of recommendations were adopted when consensus was gained.

I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees

A. Girls who have been abducted but are not yet married.

1. Shall be repatriated to their parents/relatives as soon as they are identified.

B. Girls who have been Married in Captivity

1. As soon as they are identified they shall be asked by their parents/relatives if they want to remain with their husbands.

2. If a woman declares that she wants to remain with her husband, than the bride wealth must be collected and presented to her parents/relatives.

3. If she desires to return to her parents/relatives she is to be repatriated.

4. If there are children of the marriage, the natural father may choose to redeem the children according to Dinka/Nuer traditions.

5. If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.

6. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the SPLA side, a letter should be sent to Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, Chief of General Staff of SPLA, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the UDSF side, a letter should be sent to Commander Elijah Hon Tap, Chief of Staff of SSDF, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family.

If she wants to return to her parents, then she must go.

Whether she has a single child or several the natural father may choose to redeem the children, according to the custom of the Dinka/Nuer.

If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.

C. Married Women Abducted into Captivity

1. As soon as a woman in this category is identified she should be repatriated to her home area with all her children born in captivity.

D. Boys or Men in Captivity.

1. In all cases boys and men who have been abducted and held in captivity shall be freed and repatriated to their natural parents or guardians as soon as they are discovered.

2. A man who has been provided a wife by his captor must be asked where he himself wants to live. If he chooses to return to live with his parents/relatives, then his family shall pay the bride wealth which was paid by his captor.

3. If his father/relatives pay the bride wealth on his behalf, then he is free to return to his land of origin with his children and wife.

E. Boys or Men who were abducted, then freed, and have settled on their own accord.

1. This group shall be left undisturbed wherever they are found. (Cases regarding minors shall be handled according to Dinka/Nuer customary law.)

F. Creation of Abductee Identification Teams

1. On both Dinka and Nuer sides an Abductee Identification Team shall be formed made up of chiefs. The two teams shall work together, accompanying each other on tours of both Dinka and Nuer territories.

II. Resolutions Regarding: Reclaiming the Land and Rebuilding Relationships

(A provisional list was developed of villages and settlements that have been abandoned due to the Dinka-Nuer conflict during the past seven and a half years and should be considered for reconstruction. The Covenant encourages displaced communities to return to their original homes and rebuild relationships with their neighbours. The provisional list includes the names of more than 400 villages and settlements in Appendix A.)

A. Formation of a Technical and Planning Committee on Land Settlement and Reclamation responsible for:

1. Advising on consolidation and relocation of villages and stations.

2. Advising on linking villages and settlements to productive areas, introduction of ox ploughing, provision of bore wells, medical care, and veterinary services. Promotion of joint Dinka-Nuer cattle and commodity markets.

A. Affirm Freedom of Movement in Peace and Security

1. We propose a market based near the border where Dinka and Nuer can trade together, with all benefiting from the diversity of items and wealth we will be able to share together.

A. Promotion of Dinka-Nuer Reconciliation and Familial Co-Existence.

1. Establishment of a Dinka-Nuer Veterinary Centre to be jointly shared by Dinka and Nuer. This is to encourage a common concern for animal health as a vested interest which needs to be protected.

2. Establishment of Dinka-Nuer co-operatives in agricultural and commercial fields.

3. Establishment of a model Dinka-Nuer Primary School near the border, with both Dinka and Nuer students enrolled.

4. Produce a unified Re-statement of Dinka and Nuer Customary Law to assist the local courts, law enforcement and administrative officials.

5. Establish an annual award that shall be conferred by the Council upon those who are proficient in both Dinka and Nuer languages.

III. Resolutions Regarding: Institutional Arrangements

A. Police*

(*The list of border stations or police posts found in this section and the list in section IV will be finalised in a meeting of the Peace Council in Ganyliel in November 1999. Between March and November 1999 the counties and provinces will work to harmonise the two lists.)

1. Bahr el Ghazal Region shall have the following police posts:

1. 1. Adior

2. Pagrau

3. Luel

4. Madol

5. Makuac

6. Meshra Acol

7. Majak Juer

8. Mayen Jur

9. Mayom Adony

10. Mathiang

2. Unity State shall have corresponding posts as follows:

1. 1. Dhiau Rid

2. Jerweng

3. Mayom

4. Kaikon

5. Tar

6. Madol

7. Lony

8. Porjuer

9. Luel

10. Majok

11. Rialthiang

12. Tangyier

13. Riak

3. The composition of the force command and other provisions shall include:

arms & ammunitions




radio communication sets




1. 1. Joint police forces shall be formed during the dry season in the areas of contact. This will assist in areas where conflict has arisen over grazing lands. A Joint Police force from both Unity State and Bahr el Ghazal will work together in the grazing and fishing areas during the dry season.

A. The Border Courts

1. We recommend the revival and strengthening of existing border courts as well as training of para-legals to man the courts.

2. Re-affirm the present border chiefs and increase their numbers when necessary.

3. Border courts constituted in Bahr el Ghazal and Unity states shall consist of 5 to 7 members each.

4. Pending further arrangements the law applicable in both courts shall be customary law.

5. Convicts on either side shall be imprisoned where the offence was committed and shall be treated in accordance with international human rights norms.

C. Appeal Processes

1. Border courts shall be courts of original jurisdiction except in capital offences. (Capital offences go directly to the county or province judge.)

2. Appeals from border courts shall lie to the relevant peoples’ regional court .

3. Appeals from the peoples’ regional court shall lie to the county judge or province judge as the case may be.

A. Dinka-Nuer Peace Council

1. Composition: Three members, one of whom shall be a woman, shall be chosen by each county/province.

2. The Council shall meet twice a year and may meet upon the emergency call of the chairperson.

3. The Council shall elect its chairperson at its first meeting and this person shall serve in this office for a period of one year with effect from the date of his/her election.

4. The venue for the meetings shall alternate dependent on the security situation.

5. The Functions of the Council.

To oversee the implementation of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions.

A budget shall be considered and prepared by each of the respective administrations. In addition the council is urged to consider ways to involve the local communities in supporting these structures ourselves.

The council is also authorised to raise funds through appeals to international and indigenous NGOs.

Review annual performance and recommend future plans.

Recommend a larger forum or meeting between Dinka/Nuer chiefs, elders and political leaders in the event of serious violations of the Covenant and Resolutions.

The Council shall maintain contacts with the political leadership on security issues.

IV. Resolutions Regarding: Monitoring the Borders

A. Border stations or posts for the purpose of monitoring the peace shall be established at the following locations. *

(*The list of border stations or police posts found in this section and the list in section IV will be finalised in a meeting of the Peace Council in Ganyliel in November 1999. Between March and November 1999 the counties and provinces will work to harmonised the two lists.)


Nyal District

Luony Madub

Pabwong Kau Akon

Ador District

Papui Pakam Alothai

Yian Manyiel

Jagei District

Bilnyang Dol

DINKA Districts:

Yirol District

Adhel Muoth Nyibor


Gogrial District:

Majok Mading

Matiel Ayan

Wathtong Atemrot

Rumbek County:

Amokpiny Apac

Malek Madol

Tonj County:

Makwac Adel Pagor

Paweng Meshra

Akop Athieng Ruol

Majak Juer Acier Cok

Mangar Deng Kwal Aru

B. Each district is to have a radio, totalling 9 radios

5 of these are for Bahr el Ghazal

4 are for Western Upper Nile. (This does not include the Bul section since they were not present. Additional radios may be needed in the future.)

A. Stations will be manned by police and border chiefs.

B. Disarmament: As peace comes to an area, all citizens holding firearms are either to be disarmed or join the army. The local civilian militia are called Jiec-nin-bor in Nuer, or Gelweng in Dinka. The unanamous decision was that once peace is established there would be no need for these. Both Dinka and Nuer agree that these are a source of insecurity at the border, and a source of insecurity internally. The disarmament process is to be done in three stages:

o All armed civilian forces are to immediately come under the discipline of the military forces in each area;

o Firearms held by civilians shall be registered according to chieftainships;

As peace comes to an area, arms are to be stored in local armouries under the control of the local authorities.

V. Resolutions Regarding: People Outside the Peace Process

A. The concerned authorities of the Conference, Dinka and Nuer, are to disseminate the Covenant and Resolutions of the Conference in their areas with the assistance of the local authorities and the New Sudan Council of Churches.

B. The Conference calls on Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Paulino Matip Nhial to join the peace and reconciliation process and embrace the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions.

C. The Conference calls on Dr. Riek Machar and the peace-loving people of Upper Nile to use their influence to bring Kerubino Kuanyin Bol and Paulino Matip Nhial to the peace process.

D. The Conference makes the following recommendations:

1. A letter shall be written to Dr. John Garang and Riek Machar urging them to resolve their differences and embrace and promote the peace and reconciliation process.

2. Once the conflicting communities in the south are reconciled, it is recommended that an inclusive peace and reconciliation conference be organised among southern political leaders.

3. The Conference extends its gratitude to the NSCC for facilitating this important conference, and to the SPLM/SPLA for allowing this conference in Tonj County and for providing adequate security. Our gratitude also goes to the UDSF for having confidence in the security arrangements made by SPLA and for allowing delegates from UDSF controlled areas.

VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria

A. "Why do we want to extend this peace to the other side?"

1. The Dinka and Nuer of the East Bank of the Nile are equally in conflict as are those on the West side of the Nile.

2. We need peace for the entire South so that all can live in harmony.

B. The conflicts to be addressed in the East Bank are:

Nuer-Dinka Bor

Murle-Nuer and Murle- Dinka Bor



Lou Nuer-Gaawar Nuer

C. The conflicts to be addressed in Equatoria are:

Taposa - Didinga

Didinga-Displaced Nilotics



Mandari-Dinka Bor


D. Recommended Mechanisms or modalities for taking this peace to the East Bank

1. Holding a peace conference on the East Bank among the Nuer, Dinka Bor, Murle, Shilluk, and Anyua.

2. Holding a mini-peace and reconciliation conference among the Lou and Gaawar Nuer.

3. Holding a peace and reconciliation conference in Equatoria to resolve conflicts.

4. Holding a general peace conference for south Sudan.

5. Form a peace enlightenment committee to explain the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions and educate the people on the peace process.

6. Copies of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions should be widely disseminated to all communities and regions of the south as well as the Diaspora.

E. Participants in these conferences will be similar to what was done in Wunlit:

1. Chiefs

2. Women

3. Church leaders

4. Elders

5. Representatives from the SPLM and the USDF

6. Members of self-organised ethnic militia

7. Traditional spiritual leaders

8. Observers from Bahr el Ghazal and Western Upper Nile

9. Intellectuals from the Diaspora

F. These conferences shall be organised by:




4. Community Leaders and chiefs

5. Women’s Leaders

6. Youth

F. Roles for each group


o Fundraising and Co-ordination

o Logistics

o Prayer

o Transport of delegates to the venue

2. UDSF will ensure the security of the East Bank Conference

3. SPLA will co-ordinate with the NSCC and UDSF concerning security and transport of delegates from its area to the Conference site.

4. Chiefs and Community Leaders

o Building of Conference accommodation

o Contribute cattle and foodstuffs locally available

o Mobilise and inform the local population concerning peace and reconciliation

2. Women

o As organised by local women’s associations

2. Venue and Date Options:

o Venue options: Akobo, Waat, Ayod

o Date options: To be decided by participants

2. Other Peace and Reconciliation Conferences

o Mini-Conference for Lou & Gaawar, proposed for April

o Peace Conference in Equatoria. After holding the major conference in the East Bank a second major Conference should be prepared in Equatoria.

All South Inclusive Conference. This largest and most inclusive gathering shall follow the Conference in Equatoria, and will include representatives from all areas of the South: Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal, and Upper Nile. It will encompass not only the grassroots civilian population (as the Wunlit conference) but also political and other leaders. All groups, of every persuasion and faction will meet in an atmosphere of great flexibility. All participants will be entitled to speak and contribute freely.


Waat Lou Nuer Covenant

Waat, Sudan

6 November 1999

The Lou Nuer met in a People-to-People Peace and Governance Conference in Waat, Sudan under the auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC) from 1-7 November 1999. Delegates came from all districts in addition to Lou who came from Malakal, Khartoum and foreign countries.

Today, we declare an end to years of internal conflicts among our people, battles between different factions, and at least three different military forces and civil administrations. Our internal strife has made us vulnerable to conflicts with our neighbors on every side, and the Government of Sudan has armed various groups within our midst to stir up confusion and destruction. We have sealed this Covenant, with its included Resolutions, by the traditional sacrifice of a White Bull (Tu-Bor) and with Christian worship.

We have met to establish a lasting peace, to build a common system of governance and to appeal to others to join us in rebuilding our communities and spreading this peace and reconciliation to all of south Sudan.

We have agreed to the following:-


o An end to all conflicts among Lou Nuer

o Amnesty for offenses against persons and property prior to 1 November 1999

o A call to all Lou people to return to home areas and embrace the peace

o Extending the hand of peace to Gaawar Nuer to our west and Jikany Nuer to our East. We stand ready to resolve any outstanding issues and build a permanent peace.

o Extending the hand of peace to all neighbouring people on the East Bank of the Nile. With the NSCC, we invite all Nilotic peoples on the East Bank of the Nile to send delegations in February 2000 for a People-to-People peace conference.


o Strongly urge our political and military leaders to construct civil and military governance systems that will unite all Nuer people and contribute to a reconciled and united south Sudan. This system must be outside the control of the Government of Sudan or persons working in Government of Sudan controlled areas of the country.

o A separation of civil and judicial administration from the military administration;

o Empowerment of chiefs to handle all local judicial cases and a rebuilding of the civil judicial system;

o Establishment of a police system that will maintain order within our communities and be accountable to the civil administration;

o Instruct all civil administrators to be accountable for their areas, to the people, and to work in a close and transparent manner with indigenous and international NGOs;

o Require the regular military and the White Army to demobilize all children under age fifteen;

o Commit ourselves to development of water resources that enable us to have permanent communities, the establishment of schools for our children, health care for our people, and food to sustain ourselves all year.

Appeals from Lou Nuer

o To all Nuer: Appeal for unity, peace and shared responsibility for security within a unified political administration.

o To all Neighbors: We declare a unilateral, permanent cease-fire and express our desire to build peace with our neighbors.

o To all Southerners: We appeal for an unending commitment to unite south Sudan so that security is assured, our political objectives are realized and our rights protected.

o To all Friends of South Sudan: We appeal for partners who will help us rebuild our communities, strengthen our civil administration, and provide support for our common security.

A Word of Promise: We will protect this peace against anyone from within our ranks or who would come against us from the outside attempting to destroy our unity and peace. For this peace we are willing to die so that our children may live in peace and enjoy this good land that God has given to us.






(May 9th to the 15th, 2000)

A gathering of traditional and civil leaders was convened in Liliir (Bor, county), to reconcile the differences and conflicts between the Anyuak, Dinka (Bor & Padang), Jie, Kachipo, Murle (Boma) and Nuer (Gawaar & Lou), and to establish harmony and peace amongst themselves. The spirit of the conference was reflected at the opening by the ceremonial sacrifice of a ‘White Bull’, and concluded with the declaration of a joint covenant between the represented ethnic groups. The covenant was sealed with the sacrifice of a ‘White Ox’, the offering of Christian worship, and the signatures of each of the participating delegates and observers, publicly recorded. The following outlines their covenant:

"Under the facilitation of the NSCC, and witnessed by many church leaders and other citizens of Sudan, we, the delegates of the Liliir conference have established a covenant of peace and reconciliation between us. We declare our intention today to cease from hostile acts, and commit ourselves to the practical measures necessary to ensure the integrity and sustainability of our agreement. Recalling the spirit and wisdom handed down from our ancestors, and the memory of our daughters and sons who have unnecessarily died over the past 10 years, we pledge ourselves to observe and implement this covenant and its accompanying resolutions.

We have unanimously agreed that:

all traditional hostilities will cease among us, and that all military (and militia) groups are to respect the civilian population and abide by, and protect, this covenant;

the conditions necessary to foster local peace and development are brought about by our communities and leaders, and the provision of basic essential services for the people are made available and improved;

an amnesty will be upheld for all offences against our people and their property prior to the conference, in the spirit of reconciliation and unity. The amnesty takes effect from this date;

all abducted women and children are freely returned to their places of origin, and where necessary, marriage customs are fulfilled;

freedom of movement across our common borders is upheld, and trade and communication is encouraged and supported;

all cross border agreements are respected and the authority of the border chiefs and police patrols are justly observed;

access to common areas for grazing, fishing and water points will be regulated and shared peacefully among us;

we will demand good governance from our leaders for the achievement of unity and the observance of human rights;

we will advocate on behalf of our sisters and brothers who have been scattered and displaced, especially those from the Bor area, for their return to their homeland with the encouragement and co-operation of their communities, leaders and civil authorities of origin.

In conclusion, we appeal that the people from Upper Nile who were either blocked or did not have an opportunity to participate in the conference be told about our deliberations and be encouraged to meet with us in the near future so that the East Bank peoples’ peace process can be widened and deepened. This covenant reflects the will of the people represented at Liliir. It incorporates the resolutions of the conference (attached), and we urge that they be implemented with the full assistance and protection of the civil authorities under all of the southern liberation movements. We hope that the friends of Upper Nile will support our efforts and consolidate our desire for peace." (15.05.00)


NSCC Official Version, 8 November, 1999

People-To-People Peace Process
Wulu Evaluation

22nd to the 25th of November, 2000



In the company of Church leaders, and under the facilitation of NSCC, 25 traditional and community leaders participated in an evaluation of the progress achieved through the people to people’s peace initiative and made recommendation for strengthening the process in the future. The meeting was held in Wulu, Rumbek county of Bahr el Ghazal region, between the 22nd and the 25th of November, 2000. Representatives came from Upper Nile (Anyuak, Murle & Nuer), Bahr el Ghazal (Bel & Dinka) and from the Nuba Mountains (south Kordofan). The meeting deeply regretted, that for a variety of logistical reasons, representation from Equatoria and South Blue Nile were unable to attend the evaluation.

The following sets out the core observations and recommendations made by the gathering. A more detailed list of recommendations is found in the annex attached. Finally, a comprehensive report on the participant’s deliberations will be made available before the next official people to people’s peace conference takes place.


a conclusive consensus that the peace covenants sealed at Wunlit, Waat and Liliir have brought a new hope to the people, and are positively transforming the quality of the lives of those who have benefited from the agreements. All participants offered practical examples of how the peace agreements are working at the local level, and how the spirit of reconciliation and good will is sustaining and spreading across the border areas.

a number of examples were also recorded of where resolutions have yet to be implemented: especially the introduction of basic services and support for communities who wish to return to their previously abandoned home areas (see annex for more details). As a matter of priority, all participants appealed to NSCC, and all those in a position to deliver essential services, to focus on communities who have reconciled, and encourage and consolidate their achievements of peace.

that the character of the peace process is growing into a collective, southern-wide expression for unity and peace. Participants appealed for unity among all Sudanese struggling for their liberation. They insisted that the people’s peace dialogues should never be mistaken as a chiefly Dinka-Nuer process, but one intended for and made available to all the peoples of southern Sudan (i.e. Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile, Western & Eastern Equatoria, Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile).

that when promoting peace and unity among the people, traditional leaders must assume their responsibilities with honesty and humility, and with courage to speak out truthfully. They must not deceive the people, nor be deceived by forces contrary to peace.

that the future sustainability of the peace process will depend on the political will of the collective southern leadership (i.e. traditional, political, religious and other civil society leaders) to promote unity and the spirit of reconciliation, and oversee the institution of good governance systems throughout the regions. The participants stressed, that unless there is greater clarity and commitment to the promotion of unity, and genuine attempts to institute the rule of law, that those seeking reconciliation and peace will be undermined and the liberation struggle threatened with defeat.

that the peace process is facing another immense threat through the continued exploitation of oil in southern Sudan. The participants especially urged those from the international community, who are genuinely interested in peace with justice in Sudan, to publicly demonstrate their intentions for peace and ensure an immediate halt to the extraction of this natural resource which is prolonging the war, and bringing increased divisions, suffering and death.

that NSCC should urgently convene a follow up meeting, this time with representatives from all of the 3 regions of the south, the Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile. Invitations should be offered to those already associated with the people to people’s peace process, from community and traditional leaders from all the regions, from religious institutions, from civil society organisations and groups (including a proportionate representation of women and youth leaders), from the military, and from the Diaspora of southerners - including former political leaders (who can throw light on our previous political history). The purpose of this wider meeting is to create a platform for the people to express their desire for unity, justice and peace, and for the conditions that will sustain peace, and seek a consensus around how this aspiration will be practically achieved.

The Wulu meeting endorsed the people to people peace process, and expressed optimism over its power to bring reconciliation and peace. The initiative was summed up by the participants as a process that concerns their lives and their future, and one that must reach out to all of the regions of the south, and to the Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile. However the participants cautioned the facilitators, that if the conditions to sustain unity and peace are not urgently put in place, the future of the peace process will be in jeopardy. For this reason, the evaluation appealed for another follow up meeting and asked NSCC to ensure that wide-spread participation will be present.

Statement issued through the New Sudan Council of Churches: 28.11.00




The participants of the Kisumu Conference affirm that:

1. Liberation is the common and prime agenda for people of southern Sudan (including Abyei), Nuba Mountains, and South Blue Nile and that it is the people who are at the center of the liberation struggle.

2. Self-determination is the central objective of the people’s liberation struggle.

a. This inalienable right of self-determination should be exercised through internationally supervised referendums for all marginalized areas struggling for liberation as mentioned above.

b. There should be an extensive program of civic education in preparation for the referendum

c. Common commitment to self-determination should be a unifying factor for everyone involved in the struggle for liberation.

The participants of the Kisumu Conference resolve that:

3. All movements should:

a. Immediately cease hostilities amongst themselves and commit to open dialogue to resolve political differences.

b. Establish peace desks in collaboration with civil society organizations, coordinate and share information amongst themselves, and maintain close contact with the NSCC

4. The SPLM should:

a. Clarify its position particularly in blocking participation of civilian participants to this conference vis-a-vis the National Convention (1994), Civil Society Conference (1996) and the SPLM/A-Church Dialogue (1997), and the democratic positions espoused in these documents concerning freedom of movement and assembly.

b. Take appropriate actions to prevent those Nuer who join SPLM/A from attacking their own people

5. The Nuer community should:

a. With facilitation of NSCC, bring together leaders of SSLM and SPDF to establish a framework for unity and peace.

6. The NSCC should:

a. Continue and strengthen dialogue with SPLM in a timely manner to bring it and the people in the areas under its control back into the people-to-people peace process.

b. Organize individual meetings with all the movement leaders to establish the foundation for a further inclusive meeting on the peace process. This process should begin with SPLM and SPDF, but they should not prevent progress with all other movements.

c. Fully involve all elements of civil society in the process of reconciliation and unification.

i. Ensure that women are empowered and have an active voice at all levels of the people-to-people peace process in acknowledgement of their importance in the formation of values and historical exclusion.

ii. Ensure that youth are wholly represented in the process.

d. Encourage grass-root dialogue, forming community peace committees that should be morally supported by the various political movements. The grassroots process should remain independent from the movements.

e. Review the talks held in 1991-92 to reconcile the split between the Torit and Nasir factions, to ascertain whether the reasons for failure of negotiations are still valid.

f. Develop conceptual framework for southern unity in dialogue with the movements.

g. Ensure that Equatoria is encouraged and facilitated to participate fully in the people-to-people peace process.

h. Maintain and protect its neutrality, independence from political interference, and spiritual growth and strengthen its capacity to lead the process and manage complex issues.

i. Engage more fully regional churches and church councils, including FECCLAHA, in the peace process.

j. Ensure that all participants in the people-to-people peace process should have an accurate written record with consistent high quality translations so that all groups are able to present an accurate, detailed, and unified message to their constituencies.

k. Assume responsibility for all levels of people to people process through:

i. Improved field-based monitoring, reporting and evaluation

ii. Establishment of early warning mechanisms

iii. Sensitization of local populations

iv. Establishment of mechanisms to sustain peace (including common services at borders)

l. In collaboration with the donor community, international organizations on the ground, and other elements of civil society, fully implement the recommendations and resolutions of previous conferences.

m. Immediately implement the planned Nuer-Nuer peace conferences and actively support the Nuer Peace Committee.

n. Provide in conjunction with others organizations appropriate peace and conflict management training.

o. Expand and strengthen Radio Voice of Hope to support the people-to-people peace process, and encompass civic messages and education.

7. The International community should:

a. Respond to the humanitarian tragedy in all parts of southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains, and South Blue Nile.

b. Establish an internationally supervised military no-fly zone covering southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains, and Southern Blue Nile to prevent aerial bombardment of civilians.

c. Continue support for the IGAD-facilitated peace negotiations, which should be expanded to include other opposition forces fighting for the right of self-determination and voices from civil society, and remain based on the declaration of principles (DOP), which affirms the right of self-determination.

d. Continue to support the NSCC in the implementation of the people-to-people peace process through continued funding of activities and capacity development support.

e. Bring pressure to bear on international oil companies to cease oil exploration and exploitation until there is a comprehensive and just peace agreement.

f. Provide support to start the campaign against HIV/ADIS.

The conference participants believe firmly that:

8. All elements of southern Sudanese society must recognize the dire threat that HIV/AIDS poses and must take measures to prevent it.

9. The practice of enslavement and trade in human beings must be condemned and halted by all elements of Sudanese society and the international community.

10. This conference wishes to extend its thanks to the Kenya government and the people of Kisumu.


Three items of background information to contribute to the debate

1. Joint statement by Sudan Council of Churches (SCC) and New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC) issued in Geneva in July 1999:

The issue of slavery should be looked at in the context of the crisis in Sudan.

When the crises in Sudan are brought to an end, slavery will also come to an end.

Partners should support the efforts of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights to end slavery in Sudan.

With all the good intentions in slave redemption, it does not end slavery.

2. Slavery vs. Abduction

The Government of Sudan has argued that the word "slavery" is inappropriate and should be replaced by "abduction". Some of its supporters (eg Opinion: "Slavery" in Sudan: when is a "slave" not a "slave"? British-Sudanese Public Affairs Council, London, 01/03/00) have compared with abduction as practiced by a number of southern Sudanese tribes.

At a meeting of NSCC’s Sudan Advocacy Resource Group in Nairobi in March 2000 the question was addressed. The consensus was that there is a profound difference between slavery and abduction and it rests on the treatment, status, and potential upward mobility of the victim after capture. Amongst southern tribes victims are abducted to strengthen the tribe. They are totally assimilated into the abducting tribe and usually have all the rights and responsibilities of a tribe member. A Dinka captured by the Nuer becomes a Nuer. They can even aspire to leadership within the new tribe. In slavery, the victim remains a slave. A slave is "property" and can be sold. Even southern slaves who convert to Islam and might technically be "freed" still do not gain equal rights with northerners in practice.

This does not imply approval of abduction as practiced by southern tribes; indeed the NSCC People to People Peace Process recognizes abduction as part of the problem between tribes and seeks to deal with it and bring reconciliation.

3. Background Information

A couple of years ago Sudan Update and Christian Aid UK produced booklets on slavery in Sudan which provide a fairly balanced analysis of this complex problem which is all too often tackled in a simplistic or polarized manner. Contact Peter Verney at <> or Phil Crane at <> for more details.

Nairobi 22/03/00


The Sudanese Churches believe that the oil, found in the southern Sudan Bentiu,Pariang, Melut, Jonglei etc) is a national resource that should be used to develop all the people of the Sudan. Since it started the exploitation of the oil last year 1999, the government of the Sudan has however not used the revenues from the oil for the development of the people of Sudan and in particular those in the oil areas who throughout history were neglected in terms of equitable allocation of the national resources. Instead, the oil revenues have been used for the purchase of military necessities and weapons used for killing and displacing people in these oil areas. The government's military capacity is strengthened with these revenues and it seems that the government has assumed that it can end the conflict militarily.

Further, the government is using the roads and airstrips of the multi-national oil companies engaged in the production of oil in the Sudan, for military purposes, carrying out aerial bombardment on civilian targets (Hospitals, Schools, markets, Churches etc) in the southern Sudan, Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile.

In the past the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC) has issued a statement with its partners calling for establishment of a Trust Fund to receive the oil revenues for the Sudan government. It was proposed that these revenues be apportioned fairly in accordance with an agreement to be developed by the IGAD. Such an arrangement has proven unworkable.

As the Shepherds of the population in the Sudan and eye witnesses to the on going genocide in the above mentioned areas, we call upon peace loving people and the international community to take immediate actions to STOP the on going genocide in the Sudan. This includes the withdrawal of the oil companies helping the government of the Sudan to confidently pursue the war and a call for No-fly zone for military aircraft's over the southern Sudan, Nuba Mountains and South Blue Nile, which should be monitored. This is to reinforce our call for the same through FECCLAHA forum in Limuru (Kenya) on the 23rd of March 2000.

Rev. David Demey

Chairman, Sudan Council of Churches (SCC)

Rev. John Okumu

Chairman, New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC)

Rev. Enock Tombe Stephen

General Secretary, Sudan Council of Churches

Rev. Dr. Haruun L Ruun

Executive Secretary, New Sudan Council of Churches

Geneva, 12th April 2000

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